1998-02-03 - Gilbert Vernam

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From: bill payne <billp@nmol.com>
To: kalliste@aci.net>
Message Hash: 85af089918b856bc21d6fbadee899970a105cdf6e18ffe5b3b50268d4b95d6fc
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UTC Datetime: 1998-02-03 14:47:32 UTC
Raw Date: Tue, 3 Feb 1998 22:47:32 +0800

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From: bill payne <billp@nmol.com>
Date: Tue, 3 Feb 1998 22:47:32 +0800
To: kalliste@aci.net>
Subject: Gilbert Vernam
Message-ID: <34D7287E.1752@nmol.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain

Tuesday 2/3/98 7:02 AM

John Young
J Orlin Grabbe

The crypto problem was solved in 1918.  Vernam and Maugborne [sp?]
did the work.

Gilbert Vernam in 1918. Vernam used two tapes of random characters to
generate the additional characters. With the same tapes at each end set
to the same start position this system was unbreakable. The Germans
decided that the distribution of these key tapes presented too great an
operational problem and the Lorenz machine uses a complicated
mechanical gearing and cam system to generate a pseudo random sequence
with very long period and 10^19 complexity. They thought this
was good enough to ensure unbreakability, it wasn't!

Fushimi's implementation of Lewis and my GFSR algorithm has 
period of 2^521 - 1.  And LOTS of possible starting seeds.

John Young kindly posted my article on putting non-singular binary
matrices in one-to-one correspondence with the natural numbers.

Although the period of a shift register can be 2^521 - 1, 521 bits
determines THE EXACT SEQUENCE of the remaining 2^521 - 522 bits.

Pseudorandom numbers generators have an easier job than bits
used for cryptography.  

Pseudorandom number generators merely have to deceive statistical 

Orlin   Recall the GIANT radio transmitter in the south of Russia,
perhaps Baku.  

I heard on PBS TV that it was transmitting a shift register sequence. 
Russians were apparently trying to communicate with underwater

NSA crypto algorithms mostly rely on shift register sequences - both
linear and NON-LINEAR.  The R register in my SAND report posted at
jya.com implements a non-linear SECRET/NSI feedback algorithm.

Perhaps someone may have to put NSA's SECRET/NSI R register non-linear 
feedback function out on the web some time.  

So that every one can have a good laugh, of course.  Like for the
number 31 algorithm step.

John Young   Judge Svet made a ruling.  I sent a copy
to you by snail mail.


Title: Colossus Rebuild

The Colossus Rebuild Project
by Anthony E Sale, FBCS

A bit of History

Colossus was designed and built at the Post Office Research
Laboratories at Dollis Hill in North London  in 1943 by a team led by Dr
Tommy Flowers to help Bletchley Park in decoding the intercepted German
telegraphic cipher traffic enciphered using the Lorenz SZ42 cipher

Lorenz SZ42 cipher machine at Bletchley Park

This cipher machine enciphered electrical teleprinter signals which
used the international 5 bit Baudot teleprinter code. It enciphered the
input plain text by adding to it successively two characters before
transmission. Because this addition was bit by bit modulo 2, at the
receiving end with the Lorenz machine set to the same start position,
the same two characters were added again to the received characters
revealing the original plain text.
This scheme had been developed in
America by Gilbert Vernam in 1918. Vernam used two tapes of random
characters to generate the additional characters. With the same tapes at
each end set to the same start position this system was unbreakable. The
Germans decided that the distribution of these key tapes presented too
great an operational problem and the Lorenz machine uses a complicated
mechanical gearing and cam system to generate a pseudo random sequence
with very long period and 10^19 complexity. They thought this was good
enough to ensure unbreakability, it wasn't!

A bibliography of works discussing the Lorenz
cipher has been compiled by
Frode Weierud is availabe here by
permission.  As is a book chapter describing the
Swedish effort to crack Lorenz.

The German high command thought that the Lorenz machine was
completely unbreakable and used it for their most secret messages,
literally from Hitler to his generals and between generals. The
interception and deciphering of these messages gave Generals Eisenhower
and Montgomery vital information prior to and after D Day in 1944.

Colossus was the world's first large electronic valve programmable
logic calculator, not just one but ten of them were built and
operational in Bletchley Park the home of Allied WW II codebreaking.

The question of what is the worlds first computer is less a question
of history than a question of definition.
The Mark 1 at
Manchester (1948) is a strong contender.

A view of Colossus

Colossus found the wheel settings used by the German Lorenz machine
operator for a particular message. When these had been found, which took
about two hours, they were plugged up on the Tunny machine. It was this
machine which actually deciphered the message.

This is the Tunny room in Bletchley Park in 1945.

Colossus, hardware details

    cipher text
	punched onto 5 hole paper tape read at 5,000 characters per second by
	optical reader
    Buffered onto relays: Typewriter printing onto paper roll
    Memory 5 characters of 5 bits held in a shift register.
	Clock speed 5kc/s derived from input tape sprocket
	holes. Internally generated bit streams totalling  501 bits in rings of
	lengths equal to the number of mechanical lugs on each of the 12 Lorenz
	wheels. A large number of pluggable logic gates. 20 decade counters
	arranged as 5 by 4 decades. 2,500 valves.
Power supplies
    +200v to -150v at up to 10A.
Power consumption
    Two banks of racks 7ft 6inches high by 16ft wide spaced 6 ft apart.
	Bedstead, 7ft 6inches high 4ft wide by 10ft long

Colossus, operating cycles

The basic machine cycle: read
a character from tape,  get bits from bit stream generators, perform up
to 100 logic operations, clock result into decade counters.

The cycle determined by the input tape: The intercepted
enciphered text tape is joined into a continuous loop with
about 150 blank characters in the join. Specially punched
start and stop holes indicate the beginning and end of the
cipher text.

On receipt of start hole pulse: Start bit
stream generators and send sampling pulses to reader output. Execute
basic machine cycle until receipt of stop hole pulse: Staticise counter
states onto relays. After a delay, reset counters and reset bit stream
generators to a new start position.

Colossus programming

All programmes hard wired, some permanently, some pluggable.
Conditional jumping possible between
alternative programmes depending on counter outputs.

The Rebuild

Work on the rebuild started two years
ago with the collection of all available information about Colossus,
including a series of official photographs taken in 1945.

The first
stage was to produce accurate machine drawings of the frames for
Colossus (all the original machine drawings had been burnt in 1960).
This involved three months of eyestrain pouring over the photographs and
using 3D projections to transfer the details to a CAD system, EasyCad
running on a 486 PC. 

Next problem was the optical paper tape reader system. The details
of this are not shown in any of the photographs. However I managed to
locate Dr Arnold Lynch who designed the reader system in 1942. Although
well into his 80's Dr Lynch came to my house and using my CAD system we
re-engineered the reader system to his original specifications. Then I
built it and here it is.

It uses original Colossus hard vacuum photocells, shown here on the
left and a mask onto which the image of the tape is projected by a
Colossus lense.

All the racks are now in place.

Here are some of the decade counters.

We are also rebuilding the Tunny machine.

The current state of Colossus: Jan 96

Examples of most
of the circuit panels are now working and the whole machine is working
at one bit level.

We are now rapidly cloning circuit panels to
populate all the racks.

I need lots more valves: EF36, 37 or 37A
pentodes, 6J5 triodes, 6V6 tetrodes and GT1C gas filled triode
thyratrons. The 6J5's and 6V6's should be the large glass versions to
look right.

Please send any contributions, valves or money,  to me (Tony Sale)
at   "The Colossus Rebuild Project, 15 Northampton Road, Bromham, Beds 
MK43 8QB"    tel: 01234 822788  email:

Come and see the Colossus Rebuild, the Lorenz machine and codebreaking
exhibitions in Bletchley Park.

This page was created by Tony Sale
of the Bletchley Park Trust, and
has been modified by Jeff Goldberg
of the Cranfield University Computer

Title: Cryptome



File               Topic                                             Date


sib.htm            Scientists in Black                               February 3, 1998
CAP                The Cryptographic Analysis Program (offsite)      February 2, 1998
Arne Beurling      The Geheimschreiber Secret (offsite)              February 2, 1998
Army Stegano       US Army Steganography (offsite)                   February 2, 1998

<A HREF="http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/ccc/bpark/colossus.htm
">Colossus           Rebuilding Colossus (offsite)                     February 2, 1998
Frode Crypto       Cryptology Papers (offsite)                       February 2, 1998
jimbell9.htm       Jim Bell Update                                   February 2, 1998
echelon-boost      NSA Surveillance System Boosted (offsite)         February 2, 1998
cn020298.txt       Crypto News                                       February 2, 1998

bxa020298.txt      BXA Meet on Export Rules and Procedures           February 2, 1998
cs020298.txt       Rules to Challenge Customs Seizures (63K)         February 2, 1998
usg020298.txt      USG Secret Meets                                  February 2, 1998
echelon.htm        NSA Global Surveillance System                    February 2, 1998
cathedral.htm      The Cathedral and the Bazaar                      February 1, 1998

natsec-rule.htm    Protection of National Security Information       February 1, 1998
47cfr216.txt       National Communications Issuance System (106K)    February 1, 1998
47cfr213.txt       Emergency Telecomms Precedence System (17K)       February 1, 1998
47cfr202.txt       National Security Emergency Plans & Ops (27K)     February 1, 1998
47cfr201.txt       Policy for Telecomms During Emergencies (12K)     February 1, 1998

44cfr336.txt       Facilities for National Security Emergency (14K)  February 1, 1998
44cfr334.txt       FEMA Graduated Mobilization Response (14K)        February 1, 1998
32cfr322.txt       Privacy Act Exemption for NSA Records (40K)       February 1, 1998
32cfr299.txt       National Security Agency FOIA Program (8K)        February 1, 1998
32cfr2101.txt      National Security Council FOIA Requests (24K)     February 1, 1998

32cfr185.txt       Military Support to Civil Authorities (52K)       February 1, 1998
31cfr9.txt         Effects of Imported Articles on National Security February 1, 1998
22cfr124.txt       Contracts, Off-Shore Buys, Defense Services (42K) February 1, 1998
22cfr123.txt       Licenses for the Export of Defense Articles (51K) February 1, 1998
22cfr121.txt       United States Munitions List (92K)                February 1, 1998

ntia-dnsdrft.htm   Draft Proposal for New Domain Name System         January 30, 1998
korczak.txt        Boris Korczak: CIA Agent Seeks Payment            January 30, 1998
pm87.txt           Prez on Terrorist Threat to Middle East Peace     January 30, 1998

leahy-wipo.txt     Senator Leahy on Ratifying WIPO Treaties          January 30, 1998
32cfr147.txt       DoD: Policies for Access to Classified Info       January 30, 1998
32cfr148.txt       DoD: Facilities for Storing Classified Info       January 30, 1998
32cfr149.txt       DoD: National Policy on Technical Surveillance    January 30, 1998
ntia012798.htm     RFC: Self-Regulation for Privacy Protection       January 30, 1998

cylinked.htm       Latest: Cylinked to Organized Crime?              January 29, 1998
websoft-warn.htm   Web Software Warning                              January 29, 1998
scant-peril.htm    U.S. Spy Agencies Pauline Peril                   January 29, 1998
mossburg.htm       E-Comm Forum on E-Authentication and DigSig       January 29, 1998
pollard.htm        Bankers O Table on E-Authentication and DigSig    January 29, 1998

brown.htm          Secret Service on Financial Instruments Fraud     Janaury 29, 1998
rpk-hack.htm       Invite to Hack RPK InvisiMail                     January 29, 1998
nrc012998.txt      Generic Letter on Y2K Readiness for Nuke Plants   January 29, 1998
fc012998.txt       FinCEN RFC on Information Collection              January 29, 1998
dtc012998.txt      Arms Export to Saudi Arabia                       January 29, 1998

nsa-etc-nf.htm     NSA, Echelon, Trade & Crypto/Netscape & Fortify   January 28, 1998
dod012898.txt      DoD Blacklist of Higher Education                 January 28, 1998
47usc1002.txt      Interception of Digital and Other Communications  January 28, 1998
cn012898.txt       Crypto News                                       January 28, 1998
cn012798.txt       Crypto News                                       January 27, 1998

bxa-fy98.txt       BXA Funding FY 1998                               January 27, 1998
cia-tsang.htm      CIA Concedes Spying on Americans                  January 26, 1998
atpc.htm           EU-Parliament: Technologies of Political Control  January 26, 1998
us-crypto.htm      US Crypto Policy                                  January 25, 1998
pg-nzcrypto.htm    New Zealand Crypto Policy                         January 24, 1998

ra-ukcrypto.htm    UK Crypto Policy                                  January 24, 1998
whp012398.htm      Payne/Morales vs. NSA: Reply to Defendant         January 23, 1998
kellner.htm        Intellectuals and New Technologies (66K)          January 23, 1998
bxa012398.txt      BXA Penalizes Export Violator                     January 23, 1998
osd012398.txt      Compensation of North Viet-Imprisoned Operatives  January 23, 1998

dod012398.txt      Defense Dept Secret Meets                         January 23, 1998
walton-pk.htm      GCHQ: The Pre-History of Public Key Cryptography  January 22, 1998
primer             The Proliferation Primer (offsite)                January 22, 1998
sh105-238.txt      Proliferation and US Export Controls (196K)       January 22, 1998
sh105-267.txt      Safety and Reliability of US Nukes (347K)         January 22, 1998

acda012298.txt     Arms Control Secret Meet                          January 22, 1998
pd012298.txt       Prez Notice on Mideast Terrorism Emergency        January 22, 1998
bia012298.txt      Rule on Indian Casinos                            January 22, 1998
cn012198.txt       Crypto News                                       January 21, 1998
fc98.htm           Financial Cryptography '98                        January 20, 1998

doj-ssgsup.htm     Supplement to Fed Guide for Seizing Computers     January 20, 1998
cn-netreg.htm      New Chinese Internet Regulations                  January 20, 1998
pg-get-MSkey.htm   How to Recover Private Keys for Microsoft Wares   January 20, 1998
ietf-dea-97.htm    IETF Draft Encryption Algorithms 1997             January 20, 1998
radio-rec.htm      Update: Locating Radio Receivers; Encoder Stolen  January 20, 1998

pipenet.htm        PipeNet Description                               January 20, 1998
dod012098.txt      Defense Dept Secret Meets                         January 20, 1998
bernstein12.htm    Transcript of Bernstein Hearing                   January 19, 1998
fbi-umbc.htm       Barry Smith (FBI) to Speak on Encryption Policy   January 18, 1998
de-snoop.htm       Update: German Surveillance State                 January 17, 1998
bxa-wa-rule.htm    Update 2: BXA Rule on the Wassenaar Arrangement   January 16, 1998

pd98-10.htm        Prez OKs China's Nuclear Controls                 January 16, 1998
tcryptol           Theory of Cryptography Library (offsite)          January 16, 1998
cn011698.htm       Crypto News                                       January 16, 1998
nsasuit8.htm       USA/NSA Responds to Payne/Morales Motion          Janaury 16, 1998
dod011698.txt      Defense Dept Secret Meets                         January 16, 1998

bxa011398.txt      Materials Advisory Meet                           January 15, 1998
crypto-kong.htm    Announcing Crypto Kong                            January 15, 1998
occ-dstc.htm       OCC OKs CA as Authorized Banking Activity         January 14, 1998
aes-980820         Advanced Encryption Standard Conference (offsite) January 14, 1998
ustr010898.txt     Update: Telecommunications Trade Agreements       January 14, 1998

rc2.htm            Rivest Describes RC2 Encryption Algorithm         January 13, 1998
fc011398.txt       FinCEN Regulates Card Clubs                       January 13, 1998
ta011298.txt       Key Management Infrastructure Meet                January 12, 1998
nist011298.txt     Transmission-Electron Microscopy Meet             January 12, 1998
doa011298.txt      Army Hazard Containment Invention                 January 12, 1998

gps-jam.htm        GPS Jamming                                       January 11, 1998
arthur.htm         The Force of An Idea: Theory of USA v. Microsoft  January 10, 1998
RSA-stego.htm      Batch RSA for Stego Data                          January 9, 1998
batch-DSA.htm      Batch DSA                                         January 9, 1998
cell-track.htm     Update 2: Mobile Cell Phone Surveillance          January 9, 1998

fiat-rsa.htm       Fiat's Batch RSA                                  January 9, 1998
aes010798.htm      Update: Advanced Encryption Standard              January 9, 1998
doj010998.txt      RFC: USA v. IBM/STK Antitrust Suit                January 9, 1998
bmd010898.txt      Ballistic Missile Defense Secret Meet             January 9, 1998
nih010898.txt      Commercialization of Medical Data                 January 9, 1998

fas-pde            Prez Directives/Executive Orders (offsite)        January 7, 1998
ussc-ecopy.htm     Sentencing for Electronic Copyright Violations    January 6, 1998
ussc010698.txt     RFC: US Sentencing Guidelines (254K)              January 6, 1997
mercier.htm        Terrorists, WMD, and the US Army Reserve          January 6, 1998
terror-rnd.htm     US Counterterrorism R&D Program                   January 6, 1998

belet              Bob East Letter on AP/Jim Bell/IRS (offsite)      January 6, 1998
pitfalls           Schneier: Security Pitfalls in Crypto (offsite)   January 5, 1998
dsb010598.txt      Defense Science Board Secret Meets                January 5, 1998
ntia010598.txt     Funds for Public Telecommunications               January 5, 1998
cn010598.txt       Electronic Surveillance News                      January 5, 1998

csda.htm           Cypherpunks Smartcard Developer Association       January 4, 1998
aimd-98-21.htm     Executive Guide: Info Security Management (139K)  January 3, 1998
blast-mono.htm     Blast Resistant Doors Monograph                   January 3, 1998
tempest-door.htm   Electromagnetic Shielding/TEMPEST Door            January 3, 1998
ehj.htm            Banned Basque Video: Democratic Alternative       January 3, 1998

fda010298.htm      Policy for External Penile Rigidity Devices       January 2, 1998
doe010298.htm      Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Plan            January 2, 1998
dos010298.txt      Meet on Global Communications and Info Policy     January 2, 1998
doa010298.txt      Army Science Board Meet                           January 2, 1998


	    Cryptomb 2
	  June-December 1997
	  To May 31 1997
	    DoE: Pay Bill
	  DoJ: Free Jim Bell