1998-02-19 - rushdie list

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From: bill payne <billp@nmol.com>
To: j orlin grabbe <kalliste@aci.net>
Message Hash: 947aac0c9e62cb380aee5414eca4b6b582c2ef2db85bce6b27d6d16a44572f15
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UTC Datetime: 1998-02-19 03:52:06 UTC
Raw Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 11:52:06 +0800

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From: bill payne <billp@nmol.com>
Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 11:52:06 +0800
To: j orlin grabbe <kalliste@aci.net>
Subject: rushdie list
Message-ID: <34EBA748.689C@nmol.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
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Best to try to keep off the list.

  August 1991, Shapour Bakhtiar and Soroush Katibeh are killed in  
Suresnes, France.

Title: Iranian Martyrs

This page is dedicated to all those who stood up against tyranny


Below is a list of all those who were affiliated to NAMIR  or its military wing - NEGHAB - and
were murdered by the Islamic Republic of Iran : 
Date         Location           Name                    
04/07/1980   Tehran             A.Mohagheghi (general)
04/07/1980   Tehran             G.Ghayeghran (non-commissioned officer : pilot)
04/07/1980   Tehran             F.Jahangiri (non-commissioned officer : pilot)
04/07/1980   Tehran             A.Kamiani 
04/07/1980   Tehran             A.Karimbar
30/07/1980   Tehran             H.Kazemi (non-commissioned officer)
30/071980    Tehran             M.Moradi (non-commissioned officer)
30/07/1980   Tehran             S.Norouzi (sergeant)
30/07/1980   Tehran             A.Mohamadi
30/07/1980   Tehran             M.Assangochai
30/07/1980   Tehran             Y.Mahboubian
30/07/1980   Tehran             E.Mamaghani
30/07/1980   Tehran             N.Sedarat
30/07/1980   Tehran             E.Baroukhim
30/07/1980   Tehran             M.B.Fard (lieutenant)
30/07/1980   Neyshabur          Y.Khadjeh
30/07/1980   Neyshabur          G.Jafari
31/07/1980   Tehran             M.Farzam (lieutenant)
31/07/1980   Tehran             H. Karimpurtari (non-commissioned officer)
31/07/1980   Tehran             D.Jalaii (colonel)
31/07/1980   Tehran             N.Yahyaii (lieutenant)
31/07/1980   Tehran             N.Najaf-Nejad (sergeant)
07/08/1980   Tehran             I. Soltani (corporal)
07/08/1980   Tehran             H.Lashkari (lieutenant-pilot)
07/08/1980   Tehran             M.Saghafi (lieutenant-pilot)
07/08/1980   Tehran             A.Zarineh (colonel)
07/08/1980   Tehran             H.Gohari (major)
07/08/1980   Tehran             K.Alizadeh (major)
07/08/1980   Tehran             A.Morvaridi (sergeant)
07/08/1980   Tehran             S.Pourfahmideh (lieutenant)
07/08/1980   Tehran             M.Najafabadi (lieutenant)
07/08/1980   Tehran             M.Zahedi (lieutenant)
07/08/1980   Tehran             M.Asgharian (non-commissioned officer)
07/08/1980   Tehran             H.Abedini
07/08/1980   Tehran             F.Azarian (lieutenant)
16/08/1980   Tehran             E.Arab-Shirazi
16/08/1980   Tehran             A.Awazzadeh 
16/08/1980   Tehran             M.Sajadi (non-commissioned officer)
16/08/1980   Tehran             M.Farahpour
16/08/1980   Tehran             Z.Momeni
16/08/1980   Tehran             G.Khergani (sergeant)
16/08/1980   Tehran             M.Kiani (sergeant)
16/08/1980   Tehran             D.Bakhtiar
16/08/1980   Tehran             G.NaghibZadeh (non-commissioned officer)
16/08/1980   Tehran             H.Zamanpour (flight-lieutenant)
16/08/1980   Tehran             K.Azartash (major)
16/08/1980   Tehran             A.Azmudeh (colonel)
16/08/1980   Tehran             C.Ahmadi (lieutenant)
16/08/1980   Tehran             S.Mahdiun (general-pilot)
16/08/1980   Tehran             M.Farnejad (non-commissioned officer)
16/08/1980   Tehran             K.Mohamadi-Koubaii (non-commissioned officer)
16/08/1980   Tehran             M.Tightiz (non-commissioned officer)
18/08/1980   Tehran             M.Mirlaki (non-commissioned officer)
18/08/1980   Tehran             M.Abedini-Moghadam (non-commissioned officer0
18/08/1980   Tehran             K.Rahmati (non-commissioned officer)
18/08/1980   Tehran             P.Bayani (non-commissioned officer)
18/08/1980   Tehran             L.Lotfolahi (non-commissioned officer)
18/08/1980   Tehran             A.Habibi (lieutenant)
18/08/1980   Tehran             N.Zandi (flight lieutenant pilot)
18/08/1980   Tehran             C.Karimian (sergeant)
18/08/1980   Tehran             O.Boyeri (flight lieutenant)
18/08/1980   Tehran             A.Soleimani (flight lieutenant)
18/08/1980   Tehran             D.Mazaheri-Kashani
18/08/1980   Tehran             D.Fatehjou (non-commissioned officer)
18/08/1980   Tehran             A.Pourkarbassi-Dehi (non-commissioned officer)
18/08/1980   Tehran             D.Fateh-Firouz (non-commissioned officer)
18/08/1980   Tehran             K.Afrouz (flight lieutenant)
18/08/1980   Tehran             M.Azimifar (flight lieutenant)
21/08/1980   Tehran             M.Arad (lieutenant)
21/08/1980   Tehran             M.Sadeghi (colonel)
21/08/1980   Tehran             H.Izadi (colonel)
21/08/1980   Tehran             Asghari
25/08/1980   Tehran             D.Rahbar (non-commissioned officer)
25/08/1980   Tehran             G.Hamedani (non-commissioned officer)
25/08/1980   Tehran             F.Javaherian (non-commissioned officer)
25/08/1980   Tehran             M.Zade-Naderi (non-commissioned officer)
26/08/1980   Tehran             G.Hejazi (female)
26/08/1980   Tehran             D.Shomali
26/08/1980   Tehran             H.Ahmadi
26/08/1980   Esfahan            M.Altani
26/08/1980   Esfahan            H.Karimi
26/08/1980   Esfahan            S.Mozaii
26/08/1980   Esfahan            H.Dari
26/08/1980   Esfahan            A.Allahverdi
26/08/1980   Esfahan            S.Hemati
26/08/1980   Esfahan            M.Vesaali
26/08/1980   Esfahan            B.Nikbakht (female)
26/08/1980   Esfahan            E.Biglari
26/08/1980   Esfahan            J.Hemati
26/08/1980   Esfahan            E.Karimi
26/08/1980   Esfahan            M.Karimi
28/08/1980   Tehran             S.Bassani (female)
28/08/1980   Tehran             M.T.Bahrami (non-commissioned officer)
29/08/1980   Tehran             A.Almasi (lieutenant)
29/09/1980   Tehran             H.Haleki (lieutenant)
29/08/1980   Tehran             M.R.Javadi (lieutenant)
29/08/1980   Tehran             H.Ahmadi (non-commissioned officer)
29/08/1980   Tehran             J.Ranjbar (non-commissioned officer)
30/08/1980   Tehran             A.Azizian (major)
30/08/1980   Tehran             R.Soltani (colonel)
30/08/1980   Tehran             A.Faria (colonel)
30/08/1980   Tehran             I.Derakhshandeh (non-commissioned officer)
30/08/1980   Tehran             M.Bahrami
30/08/1980   Tehran             S.Shahbeui (colonel)
30/08/1980   Tehran             I.Khalafbegi (major)
30/08/1980   Tehran             K.Keyvanfar
30/08/1980   Ahwaz              M.Borati (corporal)
30/08/1980   Ahwaz              I.Marvdashti (non-commissioned officer)
30/08/1980   Ahwaz              R.Yahyapasand (lieutenant)
30/08/1980   Ahwaz              M.A.Mehrabi (non-commissioned officer)
30/08/1980   Ahwaz              O.Atashboro
30/08/1980   Ahwaz              S.Sotoudeh
01/09/1980   Tehran             D.Asghari (officer)
01/09/1980   Tehran             D.Raastgu (lieutenant)
01/09/1980   Tehran             M.Fatahi-Nourdehi (non-commissioned officer)
03/09/1980   Ahwaz             M.Hokmabadtchi (sergeant)
03/09/1980   Ahwaz             E.Ostad-Nazari (lieutenant)
03/09/1980   Ahwaz             F.Reissi (lieutenant)
03/09/1980   Ahwaz             S.Dehgan (lieutenant)
09/09/1980   Tehran            M.Sayah (sergeant)
09/09/1980   Tehran            M.Rahbai-Nejad (lieutenant)
09/09/1980   Tehran            M.Tajvari (lieutenant)
09/09/1980   Tehran            B.Partovi (major)
09/09/1980   Tehran            H.Mostafavi 
11/09/1980   Tehran            K.Atri
11/09/1980   Tehran            M.Sadeghi (colonel)
11/09/1980   Tehran            M.Sohaneki
11/09/1980   Tehran            N.Morovati (lieutenant)
11/09/1980   Tehran            N.Sajadi (non-commissioned officer)
11/09/1980   Tehran            A.Mohammad (soldier)
11/09/1980   Tehran            A.Shafigh (flight lieutenant)
16/09/1980   Tehran            M.Tabrizi-Khatun
16/09/1980   Tehran            E.Azadighaneh (non-commissioned officer)
16/09/1980   Tehran            M.Jalali-Ghajar (major)
16/09/1980   Tehran            S.Nour
13/071981    Tehran            M.Khadem
10/08/1981   Tehran            Amir-Tahmasbi (major)
10/08/1981   Tehran            A.Abdolmalek-Pour (colonel)
10/08/1981   Tehran            Didehvar (colonel)
10/08/1981   Tehran            Mohajeri
23/12/1981   Tehran            R.Marzban
23/12/1981   Tehran            A.Mohebi
30/01/1982   Tehran            A.Amir-Tahmasbi (colonel)
30/01/1982   Tehran            K.Yarahmadi
30/01/1982   Tehran            E.Seyrafi (colonel)
30/01/1982   Tehran            A.Foroughi (colonel)
30/01/1982   Tehran            A.Abdol-Malekpour
30/01/1982   Tehran            G.Rahimi (colonel)
30/01/1982   Tehran            M.Sabah (colonel)
30/01/1982   Tehran            G.Biglou
30/01/1982   Tehran            A.Mohajeri
30/01/1982   Tehran            M.Lotfzari
30/01/1982   Tehran            G.Naghib-Manesh
30/01/1982   Tehran            G.Didehvar (colonel)
30/01/1982   Tehran            G.Shahandeh-Ashtiani
30/01/1982   Tehran            M.Khashayar
11/09/1982   Tehran            R.Shahbakhti
11/09/1982   Tehran            H.Moghbelzadeh

 of these victims, none had the rights 
 of an accused as foreseen in 
 the Universal Declaration of  Human Rights 

Report on the Islamic Republic's Terrorism abroad
Since the advent of the Islamic Republic in Iran, terrorist attempts have targeted exiled Iranians as well as citizens
of other countries, condemned as heretics, around the world.  These attacks were ordered by the Islamic government 
of Iran.

1. In July 1980, Shapour Bakhtiar escapes an assassination attempt in Paris, France.  A French policeman and a 
    neighbor are killed and one policeman is seriously injured.
2. In July 1980, Ali Tabatabai is killed in Washington D.C., United States.
3. In 1981, Shahriar Shafigh is killed in Paris, France.
4. In January 1982, Shahrokh Missaghi is killed in Manila, Philippines.
5. In April 1982, a young German student is killed during the attack of the residence of Iranian students in Mainzer,
    Germany, by the pro-Iranian Hezbollah.
6. In June 1982, Shahram Mirani is fatally wounded in India.
7. In August 1982, Ahmad Zol-Anvar is fatally wounded in Karachi, Pakistan.
8. In September 1982, Abdolamir Rahdar is killed in India.
9. In 1982, Colonel Ahmad Hamed is killed in Istanbul, Turkey.
10. In February 1983, Esfandiar Rahimi is killed in Manila, Philippines.
11. In February 1984, Gholam-Ali Oveissi and his brother, Gholam-Hossein, are killed in Paris, France.
12. In August 1985, Behrouz Shahverdilou is killed in Istanbul, Turkey.
13. In December 1985, Hadi Aziz-Moradi is killed in Istanbul, Turkey.
14. In August 1986, Bijan Fazeli is killed in London, Great Britain.
15. In December 1986, Vali Mohammad Van is killed in Pakistan.
16. In January 1987, Ali-Akbar Mohammadi is killed in Hamburg, Germany.
17. In May 1987, Hamid Reza Chitgar disappears in Vienna, Austria and is found assassinated in July.
18. In July 1987, Faramarz-Agha and Ali-Reza Pourshafizadeh are killed and twenty-three persons 
      are wounded in residences of Iranian refugees Karachi and Quetta, Pakistan.
19. In July 1987, Amir-Hossein Amir-Parviz is seriously wounded by the explosion of a bomb placed in his car
      in London, England.
20. In July 1987, Mohammad-Hassan Mansouri is shot dead in his house Istanbul, Turkey.
21. In August 1987, Ahmad Moradi-Talebi is killed in Geneva, Switzerland.
22. In October 1987, Mohammad-Ali Tavakoli-Nabavi and his youngest son, Noureddin, are killed in 
      Wembley,  Great Britain.
23. In October 1987, Abol-Hassan Modjtahed-Zadeh is kidnapped in Istanbul, Turkey. 
24. In December 1988, an Iranian refugee is assassinated in front of the headquarters of the United Nations High 
      Commissioner for Refugees in Karachi, Pakistan.
25. In June 1989, Ataollah Bay Ahmadi is killed in the Emirate of Dubai.
26. In July 1989, Abdol-Rahman Ghassemlou and Abdollah Ghaderi and Fazel Rassoul are killed in Vienna, Austria.
27. In August 1989, Gholam Keshavarz is killed in Cyprus.
28. In September 1989, Sadigh Kamangar is assassinated in the north of Iraq.
29. In September 1989, Hossein Keshavarz, victim of a terrorist attempt, is paralyzed for life.
30. In February 1990, Hadj Baloutch-Khan is killed by a terrorist commando in Pakistan.
31. In Mars 1990, Hossein Mir-Abedini is wounded by an armed commando in the airport of Istanbul, Turkey.
32. In April 1990, Kazem Radjavi is killed in Coppet, Switzerland.
33. In July 1990, Ali Kashefpour is kidnapped and killed in Turkey.
34. In September 1990, Efat Ghazi is killed in Sweden by a bomb intended for her husband.
35. In October 1990, Cyrus Elahi is killed in Paris, France.
36. In April 1991, Abdol-Rahman Boroumand is killed in Paris, France.
37. In July 1991, Alberto Capriolo is wounded in Milan, Italy.
38. In July 1991, Hitoshi Igarashi is killed in Tokyo, Japan.
39. In July 1991, Ahad Agha is killed in Suleimanya, iraq.
40. In August 1991, Shapour Bakhtiar and Soroush Katibeh are killed in Suresnes, France.
41. In September 1991, Sad Yazdan-Panah is fatally wounded in iraq.
42. In December 1991, Massoud Rajavi escapes a terrorist attempt in Baghdad, iraq.
43. In January 1992, Kamran Hedayati is wounded opening a letter bomb in Vastros, Sweden.  He looses his 
      sight and his hands.
44. In May 1992, Shapour Firouzi is killed in Iraq.
45. In July 1992, Kamran Mansour-Moghadam is killed in Suleymania, Iraq.
46. In August 1992, Fereydoun Farokhzad is killed in Bonn, Germany.
47. In September 1992, Sadegh Sharafkandi, Fatah Abdoli, Homayoun Ardalan and Nouri Dehkordi are killed in 
      Berlin, Germany.
48. In January 1993, Ugur Mumcu is killed in Ankara, Turkey.
49. In February 1993, the fundamentalist terrorists in Turkey admit to have kidnapped and killed Ali-Akbar Ghorbani
      who had disappeared in June 1992 in Turkey.
50. In March 1993, Mohammad-Hossein Naghdi is killed in Rome, Italy.
51. In June 1993, Mohammad-Hassan Arbab is killed in Karachi, Pakistan
52. In October 1993, Turkish fundamentalists admit having tortured and killed for Iranian officials, Abbas Gholizadeh
      who was kidnapped in Istanbul, Turkey in December 1992.
53. In November 1993, William Nygaard is wounded in Oslo, Norway.
54. In January, 1994, Taha Kermanj is killed in Corum, Turkey. 
55. In August 1994, Ghafour Hamzei'i is killed in Baghdad, iraq.
56. In February 1996, Zahra Rajabi and Ali Moradi were killed in Istanbul, Turkey.
57. In March 1996, Ali Mollazadeh was killed in Karachi, Pakistan. 
58. In May 1996, Reza Mazlouman ( Kourosh Aryamanesh) was killed in Paris, France.

Due to the lack of reliable information, this list of terrorist attempts is not exhaustive. Undoubtedly, since the 
advent of the Islamic Republic, the number of extra-judicial executions outside Iran, in particular in Pakistan, 
Turkey and Iraq is higher.  Also, this report deliberately leaves out well known terrorist attacks ordered by Tehran, 
such as: the hostage crisis of the US embassy in Tehran in 1979; the kidnapping of British, American and French 
citizens in Lebanon by pro-Iranian Hezbollah; the explosive attack on the American and French military headquarters
in Lebanon, which were publicly claimed by Mohsen Rafighdoust, then head of the Revolutionary Guards  ; the wave 
of terrorist bombing in Paris in 1986, which resulted in the death of 13 persons and the wounding of hundreds of 
others; the death sentence against Salman Rushdie for writing The Satanic Verses; and the Dahran terrorist attempts
that targeted the American military in Saudi Arabia.

Title: NSA, Crypto AG, and the Iraq-Iran Conflict

 [Email Reply] 

NSA, Crypto AG, and the Iraq-Iran Conflict

          by J. Orlin Grabbe

	One of the dirty little secrets of the 1980s is that 
the U.S. regularly provided Iraq's Saddam Hussein with 
top-secret communication intercepts by the U.S. National 
Security Agency (NSA).  Consider the evidence.

	When in 1991 the government of Kuwait paid the 
public relations firm of Hill & Knowlton ten million 
dollars to drum up American war fever against the evil 
dictator Hussein, it brought about the end of a long legacy 
of cooperation between the U.S. and Iraq.  Hill & 
Knowlton resurrected the World War I propaganda story 
about German soldiers roasting Belgian babies on 
bayonets, updated in the form of a confidential witness 
(actually the daughter of the Kuwaiti ambassador to the 
U.S.) who told Congress a tearful story of Iraqi soldiers 
taking Kuwaiti babies out of incubators and leaving them 
on the cold floor to die.  President George Bush then 
repeated this fabricated tale in speeches ten times over the 
next three days.

	What is remarkable about this staged turn of 
events is that, until then, Hussein had operated largely 
with U.S. approval.  This cooperation had spanned three 
successive administrations, starting with Jimmy Carter.  
As noted by John R. MacArthur, "From 1980 to 1988, 
Hussein had shouldered the burden of killing about 
150,000 Iranians, in addition to at least thirteen thousand 
of his own citizens, including several thousand unarmed 
Kurdish civilians, and in the process won the admiration 
and support of elements of three successive U.S. 
Administrations" [1].

	Hussein's artful slaughter of Iranians was aided by 
good military intelligence.  The role of NSA in the 
conflict is an open secret in Europe, the Middle East, and 
Asia.  Only in this country has there been a relative news 
blackout, despite the fact that it was the U.S. 
administration that let the crypto cat out of the bag.  

	First, U.S. President Ronald Reagan informed the 
world on national television that the United States was 
reading Libyan communications.  This admission was part 
of a speech justifying the retaliatory bombing of Libya for 
its alleged involvement in the La Belle discotheque 
bombing in Berlin's Schoeneberg district, where two U.S. 
soldiers and a Turkish woman were killed, and 200 others 
injured. Reagan wasn't talking about American 
monitoring of Libyan news broadcasts. Rather, his "direct, 
precise, and undeniable proof"  referred to secret 
(encrypted) diplomatic communication between Tripoli 
and the Libyan embassy in East Berlin.

	Next, this leak was compound by the U.S. 
demonstration that it was also reading secret Iranian 
communications.  As reported in Switzerland's Neue 
Zurcher Zeitung,  the U.S. provided the contents of 
encrypted Iranian messages to France to assist in the 
conviction of Ali Vakili Rad and Massoud Hendi for the 
stabbing death in the Paris suburb of Suresnes of the 
former Iranian prime minister Shahpour Bakhtiar and his 
personal secretary Katibeh Fallouch. [2]
	What these two countries had in common was they 
had both purchased cryptographic communication 
equipment from the Swiss firm Crypto AG. Crypto AG 
was founded in 1952 by the (Russian-born) Swedish 
cryptographer Boris Hagelin who located his company in  
Zug.  Boris had created the "Hagelin-machine", a 
encryption device similar to the German "Enigma".  The 
Hagelin machine was used on the side of the Allies in 
World War II.

	Crypto AG was an old and venerable firm, and 
Switzerland was a neutral country. So Crypto AG's 
enciphering devices for voice communication and digital 
data networks were popular, and customers came from 
130 countries. These included the Vatican, as well the 
governments of Iraq, Iran, and Libya.  Such countries 
were naturally skeptical of cryptographic devices sold in 
many NATO countries, so turned to relatively neutral 
Switzerland for communication security.

	Iran demonstrated its suspicion about the source of 
the leaks, when it arrested Hans Buehler, a top salesman 
for Crypto AG, in Teheran on March 18, 1992.  During 
his nine and a half months of solitary confinement in Evin 
prison in Teheran, Buehler was questioned again and 
again whether he had leaked Teheran's codes or Libya's 
keys to Western powers.  Luckily Buehler didn't know 
anything.  He in fact believed in his own sales pitch that 
Crypto AG was a neutral company and its equipment was 
the best.  They were Swiss, after all.  [3]

	Crypto AG eventually paid one million dollars for 
Buehler's release in January 1993, then promptly fired 
him once they had reassured themselves that he hadn't 
revealed anything important under interrogation, and 
because Buehler had begun to ask some embarrassing 
questions. Then reports appeared on Swiss television, 
Swiss Radio International, all the major Swiss papers, and 
in German magazines like Der Spiegel.  Had Crypto AG's 
equipment been spiked by Western intelligence services? 
the media wanted to know. The answer was Yes [4].

	 Swiss television traced the ownership of Crypto 
AG to a company in Liechtenstein, and from there back to 
a trust company in Munich. A witness appearing on Swiss 
television explained the real owner was the German 
government--the Federal Estates Administration. [5]

        According to Der Spiegel, all but 6 of the 6000 
shares of Crypto AG were at one time owned by Eugen 
Freiberger, who resided in Munich and was head of the 
Crypto AG managing board in 1982. Another German, 
Josef Bauer, an authorized tax agent of the Muenchner 
Treuhandgesellschaft KPMG, and who was elected to the 
managing board in 1970, stated that his mandate had 
come from the German company Siemens.  Other 
members of Crypto AG's management had also worked at 
Siemens. Was the German secret service, the 
Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), hiding behind the 
Siemens' connection?

        So it would seem.  Der Spiegel reported that in 
October 1970, a secret meeting of the BND had discussed 
how the Swiss company Graettner could be guided into 
closer cooperation with Crypto AG, or could even merged 
with it. The BND additionally considered how "the 
Swedish company Ericsson could be influenced through 
Siemens to terminate its own cryptographic business." [6]

	A former employee of Crypto AG reported that he 
had to coordinate his developments with "people from 
Bad Godesberg". This was the location of the "central 
office for encryption affairs" of the BND, and the service 
instructed Crypto AG what algorithms to use to create the 
codes.  The employee also remembers an American 
"watcher", who strongly demanded the use of certain 
encryption methods.

	Representatives from NSA visited Crypto AG 
often. A memorandum of  a secret workshop at Crypto 
AG in August 1975, where a new prototype of an 
encryption device was demonstrated, mentions the 
participation of Nora L. Mackebee, an NSA 
cryptographer. Motorola engineer Bob Newman says that 
Mackebee was introduced to him as a "consultant".  
Motorola cooperated with Crypto AG in the seventies in 
developing a new generation of electronic encryption 
machines.   The Americans "knew Zug very well and gave 
travel tips to the Motorola people for the visit at Crypto 
AG," Newman told Der Spiegel.

	Knowledgeable sources indicate that the Crypto 
AG enciphering process, developed in cooperation with 
the NSA and the German company Siemans, involved 
secretly embedding the decryption key in the cipher text.  
Those who knew where to look could monitor the 
encrypted communication, then extract the decryption key 
that was also part of the transmission, and recover the 
plain text message.  Decryption of a message by a 
knowledgeable third party was not any more difficult than
it was for the intended receiver.  (More than one method 
was used.  Sometimes the algorithm was simply deficient, 
with built-in exploitable weaknesses.)

	Crypto AG denies all this, of course, saying such 
reports are ""pure invention".

	What information was provided to Saddam 
Hussein exactly?  Answers to this question are currently 
being sought in a lawsuit against NSA in New Mexico, 
which has asked to see "all Iranian messages and 
translations between January 1, 1980 and June 10, 1996". 

	The passage of top-secret communications 
intelligence to someone like Saddam Hussein brings up 
other questions.  Which dictator is the U.S. passing top 
secret messages to currently?  Jiang Zemin?  Boris 

	Will Saddam Hussein again become a recipient of 
NSA largess if he returns to the mass slaughter of 
Iranians?  What exactly is the purpose of NSA anyway?

	One more question:  Who is reading the Pope's 


[1] John R. MacArthur, Second Front: Censorship and 
Propaganda in the Gulf War, Hill and Wang, New York, 

[2] Some of the background of this assassination can be 
found in "The Tehran Connection," Time Magazine, 
March 21, 1994.

[3] The Buehler case is detailed in Res Strehle, 
Verschleusselt: der Fall Hans Beuhler, Werd Verlag, 
Zurich, 1994.  

[4] "For years, NSA secretly rigged Crypto AG machines 
so that U.S. eavesdroppers could easily break their codes, 
according to former company employees whose story is 
supported by company documents,"  "No Such Agency, 
Part 4: Rigging the Game," The Baltimore Sun, December 
4, 1995.

[5] Reported in programs about the Buehler case that were 
broadcast on Swiss Radio International on May 15, 1994 
and July 18, 1994.

[6]  "Wer ist der befugte Vierte?":  Geheimdienste 
unterwandern den Schutz von Verschlusselungsgeraten," 
Der Spiegel 36, 1996.

[7] U.S. District Court for the District of New Mexico, 
William H. Payne, Arthur R. Morales, Plaintiffs, v. 
Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, Director 
of National Security Agency, National Security Agency, 
Defendant, CIV NO 97 0266 SC/DJS.

November 2, 1997
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